- The cerebrum is the largest part of your brain and makes up about 80% of
its mass. It is divided into two halves, or cerebral hemispheres. Each half
takes information from, and control muscles of the opposite side of the body.
Your Cerebrum is also the centre of your intelligence, memory, speech and
consciousness. The outer layer, called the cerebral cortex, is folded and
grooved, and is made up of billions of nerve cells, known as grey matter.
Inside this is the thick white matter of the cerebrum, made up of connecting
- The cerebellum, which means 'little brain', is found behind the brain stem.
It has two folded and grooved halves which are responsible for co-ordinated
body movements, posture and balance. The outer layer, or cortex, contains nerve
cell, or grey matter, and under this run their fibres, in the white matter.
- SPINAL CORD
- The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue about 45 cm in length and as
thick as a finger. It is protected by a column of bones called vertebrae that
form the spine. The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous
system, and together they control most of your body's activities. The 31 pairs
of spinal nerves, which fan out from the spinal cord, form the peripheral
nervous system. These provide the main links between your brain and the rest of
- MEDULLA OBLONGATA
- The medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the brain stem, next to the
spinal cord. It is only 2.5 cm long. Nerve fibres cross over here, so that one
side of your brain receives information from the opposite side of your body.
The medulla oblongata is also the control centre for a number of vital body
functions. These include: pacing of your heartbeat, controlling blood vessels
& blood pressure, and setting the rate and depth of your breathing.
- PITUITARY GLAND
- The pituitary gland is a small gland about the size of a pea, which is
attached to the underside of the brain. It is made up of two halves, or lobes.
The gland releases many important chemicals, called hormones into your blood
stream. One hormone for example, affects the rate of your body's growth. many
more control activities of other glands and, in turn, the release of many other
- The hypothalamus is a part of your brain, about the size of a cherry, that
is located behind your eyes. It is an important regulator of many of your
body's automatic functions, including those of the hormonal system. Although
small, the hypothalamus regulates the heart and blood pressure (making it
'pound' after a fright). It also controls body temperature by making you shiver
and sweat, hunger and fullness, thirst and water balance, emotions and sleep.
- This is where the spinal cord and the brain meet. Along with the medulla
oblongata, it regulates breathing, making sure the tissues get enough oxygen.